Technical and Contractual Risks Associated with BIM

Blog-14thApril-2017BIM (Building Information Modeling) is a perfect solution for architects, design and construction teams to address design implementation challenges. 3D BIM coordination facilitates an evolving workflow, interoperability and collaboration between different project stakeholders. This has widened the scope and application of concept design, design development, implementation and project delivery methods.

With 3D BIM coordination, you can collaborate with designers, engineers, building services contractors and general contractors to communicate design intent and ensure the project is implemented efficiently from preconstruction concept review to construction completion. When collaboration happens at this scale, you need to consider the associated technical and contractual risks before you adopt BIM tools:

1.Data control – When using 3D BIM models, you may have different users entering data at various stages of a project lifecycle. To ensure there is responsibility for inaccuracies and control of data entry, you must ensure BIM users sign applicable indemnities, disclaimers and warranties. This will help you in controlling the movement of data and assigning responsibilities.

2.Assignment of responsibilities – Typically in BIM projects, many team members collaborate and ownership of BIM data must be clearly stated. To avoid conflict and confusion, you need to create contract documents that should clearly define ownership and assign responsibilities when using BIM data.

3.Proprietary information protection – In the process of design development and project implementation, proprietary information may be used by team members. While your client may have ownership rights for the design, contract documents need to clearly state the ownership rights of proprietary information to ensure protection.

4.Design licensing – In certain projects, designers and contractors may provide vendor designs and specifications of material and equipment. In such instances, you need to create policies to ensure that only those designs with relevant licenses for the project are used. This will help you in avoiding licensing issues of vendor designs associated with their products.

5.Consistency in the use of technology – When adopting BIM modeling and coordination processes, to maintain an efficient and smooth workflow, you need to ensure that different project stakeholders, who need to work collaboratively, are using software versions that are compatible. All users must be informed about changes in versions and software updates. Based on the BIM environment you choose, whether closed BIM (the use of the same software and version) or open BIM (the use of neutral or compatible file formats), you need to make sure this selection is agreed at the outset of the project. This will help in avoiding compatibility issues that may arise in the later stages of the project lifecycle.

In any collaborative environment, clearly defining responsibilities and rules will help in improving teamwork of various project stakeholders. You may adopt an Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) strategy to build successful working relationships and facilitate efficient collaboration between your entire design, engineering and construction teams. While there is no secret formula or a common risk mitigation strategy, you can reduce conflicts and confusion by adopting best practices and creating well-defined contracts. By clearly specifying the roles, responsibilities and accountable members or groups, it will help you to create a successful collaborative environment and embrace an evolving concept such as 3D BIM coordination.

With BIM modeling you can improve the process of concept design, design development and communication of design concept to project stakeholders and clients. As new BIM technology is introduced, the next step would be to adopt a cloud-based BIM collaboration tool, such as A360 Collaboration for Revit (C4R). With cloud-based BIM tools, you can facilitate ‘borderless’ collaboration and allow project stakeholders to work on a model simultaneously from different sites, anywhere, anytime and on any device. By adopting BIM, you can improve collaboration between project teams, optimise project duration, reduce cost and strengthen client relationship.

Why BIM is becoming important for Retail Design?

Across global the retail markets are facing unprecedented challenges from within their sector and also from new e-commerce sectors. Retailers that are successful are aware that this success can be short lived and therefore expansion and roll out of their outlets can sometimes become a limitation for success are aware that Assuming that the challenge is indeed speed to market, for retailers, it is paramount to adopt a design planning process which can help them develop retail ideas that are versatile, clash-free and efficient to build/install within a planned budget. This is where BIM can start to provide significant benefits due to the ease of operation, use of a database of library items and the benefit of repeatability of the design concept.

BIM can be beneficial for the entire retail property development chain from design consultants and architects, to MEP installers and facility managers. If it is used effectively it can lead to faster scale up, design accuracy, higher design flexibility and cost efficiency. Whilst it does take some take and effort to convert conventional CAD drafting processes, blocks and templates to parametric BIM retail design techniques, once done BIM can help retailers to design faster and more accurately. A few of the key benefits of retail design with BIM are discussed in more detail below.

Rapid Development of Design and Construction Documents
Conventional CAD drafting techniques for building design require different trades to create separate drawings, which sometimes stack up too many inconsistent documents as they are incomplete, usually without a lot of information that may be created by other skilled parties, such as quantity surveyors. This information is usually mandatory for building construction and includes specifications, bill of materials, cost modelling and schedule data. Not only does a BIM model provide this data, freeing up QS (quantity surveyor) resource, it also provides information from the 3d model that contains intelligent data related to design intent and construction and facilities management information. The major stakeholders will typically receive the data that is combined within a master BIM model to then extract further use and benefit from the design model.

Although the success of retail BIM projects depends on the acceptance levels of all the project participants to perceive BIM as a future-ready tool, the actual benefit of BIM lies in its ability to assist in extraction of various documents, data and views including plans, sections, elevations, renderings, bill of quantities (BOQ), material costs and time schedule, all within record time. All this results in quicker, on-demand data extraction and generation from BIM models for any construction-related designs or drawings.

Development of Standardized Re-usable BIM Families
To maintain consistency, a retailer may use typical fixtures and fittings across their retail network as retail industry primarily focuses on brand image and brand appearance. Retail design teams, with the help of BIM teams, are able to create standardized libraries of BIM for fixtures and fittings which, with further modifications can be used when designing and planning new outlets, thus enabling retail owners to maintain exclusivity with regards to visual elements, consumer experiences and shoplifting layouts. The design team, keeps BIM libraries updated for various unique outlet chains which help in saving time during conceptual and detail design stages whilst boosting efficiency ratios.

For example, consistency within all the outlets can be maintained by keeping the key retail architectural elements uniform with the help of BIM families which leaves scope for tweaking other architectural details and regional elements.

Creating Store Prototype Models that Can Be Localized
When developing new prototype store designs, BIM proves to be a valuable asset to retailers BIM prototypes not only offer 3D visualisation prowess but also provide a quality database which consists of detailed information on crucial aspects such as materials, fixtures, components, cost estimation and quantity take-offs. As compared to traditional CAD drafting methods, intuitive and elaborate prototypes like these, accelerate the roll out of new store designs.

In summary, using design standards, fixtures, fittings and brand guidelines in a BIM environment as opposed to a CAD environment may incur an up-front cost and time contribution, but the benefit for mass roll out using a library of intelligent components will significantly reduce overall design time and also improve accuracy of project drawings and project data – providing greater certainly for construction teams and also costing teams.

‘Why Outsourcing Architectural Design Development Can Work For You’

How common is outsourcing design development in architecture practices? We think it happens all the time, for big brand-names and small studios alike. It may not always be formal outsourcing, but it carries the same core principles. One way of basic outsourcing is using interns and graduates that work in temporary roles but handling much of the design development work and less of the more demanding creative and conceptual design work. One more sophisticated and organized form of outsourcing is hiring an outside firm, either local or international. Such a firm effectively becomes a design partner, seamlessly integrating in the company’s architectural design team.

An company abroad, for instance, would handle all the drawing/modeling tasks but is not usually in direct contact with the client, nor is it present in meetings and basically works hard to deliver on the lead architect’s requirements. That’s why using “outsourcing” as a term to describe working with interns and graduates is warranted, but as we’ll see, it may often not be the best approach.
Almost all companies fit in one of the two categories above as a natural market adaptation to reduce costs with tasks that, by their nature, are fairly easy to delegate. This is a common practice nowadays and it is a perfectly fine approach, especially when there are proper communication channels in place between the low level and high level staff. Managing an office and/or a suite of projects is a task in and of itself, leaving little room for the drafting or modeling work.
So the question now becomes which one of these work forms is the most optimal? The short answer would be that each company has specific needs and a specific culture, but if we look closely we can easily determine a general trend. Whilst the use of interns and graduates may solve a problem in the short term, the need to constantly re-hire and retain them can be a major distraction. Instead, using outsourcing firms for the architectural design development phase means that you are partnering up with highly skilled professionals, with zero overhead costs. Such firms are often specialized in specific domains where they’ve honed in-house systems that allow them to work extremely fast, relying heavily on advanced BIM solutions. Outsourcing firms can also guarantee on schedule delivery since they typically have buffer resources and larger numbers of employees.

When looking at outsourcing firms, there is little to no distinction between the interaction workflow you will have with local versus international companies. The problem can arise when you limit yourself to a small market, the local one, and you end up constantly swapping providers of outsourcing services and thus rely on new firms to pick up where the previous ones left. The solution is to tap into the international market and chose a quality, reliable partner for long term collaboration. Looking broader as opposed to narrower has the added advantage that you will likely find providers with lower production/management costs that will translate in a much better pricing and therefore a more competive offering.
In today’s hyper-connected global economy, communication is a non-issue and offshore collaborations become opportunities instead of challenges, allowing design leads to focus on the core aspects of their businesses.

As-Built Construction Assets: Key to Future Planning and Facilities Management

Preparing ‘as-built’ drawings and models is certainly one of the most crucial requirements of any design-build project. These final set of construction assets validates how the contractor built the structure including all the changes and modifications that were made in the process. The finalised drawings and models are passed on from the contractors to the building owners and property managers.

The set of as-built drawings and models, though underestimated and neglected, broadly serve a dual purpose. Firstly, the as-built drawings and models act as a guidebook to the AEC (architecture, engineering, and construction) firms that are contracted for renovation and refurbishment of an existing structure. So, the time, cost, and resources that would have been utilised during pre-renovation survey are saved. Secondly, they help owners and facilities managers to conveniently undertake maintenance and refurbishment activities besides helping them during emergency situations e.g. for rapid evacuation.

Whereas data-rich as-built 3D building information models have obvious benefits over 2D drawing sets, the decision to choose one over the other mainly involves factors, such as the scale of the project, owner’s preference, and the design-build teaming structure. The owners of relatively small building projects may prefer 2D as-built drawings of an existing building, prepared by a technician after collecting accurate data on site. On the contrary, large-scale design-build and renovation projects may require BIM-driven as-built 3D models.

Assuming that the project in question has not had a BIM model for the design process which is then updated during the as-built stage of the project, there are two typical ways of preparing as-built BIM models. Firstly, using the as-built drawings and other construction drawing sets as the starting point, 3D BIM models can be prepared using applications such as Autodesk Revit. The second method involves the Scan to BIM technique where point cloud data of the structures. This point cloud data is then converted into an intelligent BIM model using tools such as Cloudworx and Scan to BIM applications such as Revit.

The as-built drawings and BIM models serve as a comprehensive reference tool for owners and property managers. They benefit from these as-built drawings and models in the following ways:-

  • The finalised as-built construction assets make future project planning, including renovations, extensions, and redevelopments, convenient and cost effective for the owners.
  • Since the as-built drawings and BIM models contain complete details related to dimensions, fabrication, erection, elevations, sizing, materials, location, and mechanical/electrical/plumbing utilities, the owners can use this data and conveniently manage facilities within budget.
  • The owners can use these as-built assets to resolve disputes regarding insurance claims. In case of a massive loss due to extreme disasters, the insurance company will require extensive documentation, including the as-built drawings and models to support your claims.

As the as-built drawings and models are prepared by combining the drawings/models of all the building services, the owners and property managers can schedule maintenance operations of the building’s MEP (M&E) systems in a timely manner.

Crucial Developments in 3D Building Services Design and Coordination Field

Building services projects have benefited from many developments that have occurred in the last decade. Whether in the areas of MEP (M&E) systems design, 3D building services coordination, or interdisciplinary collaboration, the major advances seen in this field have emanated both from within the industry as well as from other sources, such as government regulations and economic developments.

  • Intelligent BIM Software for Planning and Design of Projects

 

One of the biggest changes in the modern building services industry is the use of intelligent building information modelling (BIM) software tools that allow for the creation of accurate and detailed representations of mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and fire protection systems using computable data. The fact that there are BIM tools more intelligent than ever and also which work across disciplines, such as architecture, structural engineering, and building services engineering, increases interdisciplinary coordination and reduces construction waste and rework.

 

For instance, the BIM models created using Autodesk Revit Architecture and Revit MEP can be used by building service designers for developing concept designs, schematics, and tender drawings. The same parametric model can be worked upon and used by contractors to create detailed installation and 3D MEP (M&E) coordinated drawings, including services-specific as well as multi-service coordinated plans, sections, and elevations. Furthermore, fabricators and installers can use the BIM model in conjunction with FAB MEP, a fabrication tool, to manufacture pre-assembled modules for installation on-site.

 

Not only does BIM allow creation of a coordinated 3D model, it also allows for information to be added to the model that can be used for project-critical purposes, including schedule creation, cost estimation, energy analysis and facilities management.

 

  • Greater Interdisciplinary Collaboration

 

Due to the growing adoption of BIM tools industry-wide complemented by the availability of sophisticated hardware systems and online collaboration channels, there is a far greater degree of interdisciplinary coordination between different stakeholders involved in AEC projects. As a result, architects, structural engineers, MEP consultants, MEP engineers, main contractors (general contractors), cost estimators, and fabricators can seamlessly collaborate during the design and planning stages and avoid costly rework during the construction stages.

 

For instance, large-scale construction projects generally have a complicated project structure comprising diverse project teams based in different geographical areas. During the pre-construction stage, sharing and interlinking the BIM model prepared by architects, structural engineers, MEP specialists and contractors enables respective designs to stay coordinated. Due to cloud-based collaboration tools, team members can hold review sessions online without having to be physically present together.

 

  • Higher Degree of Pre-Fabrication and Just-In-Time Delivery for Installation

 

With the widespread use of parametric modelling techniques in MEP design and planning, a major trend is to use BIM models for pre-fabrication purposes with a view to enhance the logistical cycle on the construction site. When used in conjunction with CNC fabrication applications, such as FAB-MEP, the BIM design data can be used to create fabrication drawings that can be recognised by CNC machines. Such a BIM-led prefabrication can streamline the installation process on site and avoid costly miscalculations.

 

Taking into account the complexities of the MEP (M&E) systems industry, BIM-driven prefabrication and modularisation has led to multifaceted benefits: reduced rework, in-time project completion, cost savings and increased efficiency.

 

  • Government Intervention

 

Another critical development from outside the industry is the government policies in different parts of the world either promoting or mandating the use of BIM in varying levels for government-funded or private projects. In the US, the General Services Administration (GSA), through its Public Buildings Service (PBS) Office of Chief Architect (OCA), established the National 3D-4D-BIM Program in 2003. GSA mandated the use of spatial program BIMs as the minimum requirements for submission to OCA for Final Concept approvals of all major projects receiving design funding in 2007 and beyond.

 

In Europe, the UK Government has made Level 2 BIM compulsory for all publicly-funded projects from 2016 onwards with a view to trim the cost of public-funded projects and to reduce carbon emission to meet its EU commitments. Government agencies from the Scandinavian nations have played an important role. Senate Properties, Finland’s state property services agency, required the use of BIM for its projects since 2007. Neighbouring Norway and Denmark have also made sufficient headway towards adopting BIM practises in their public-funded projects. Statsbygg, the Norwegian government agency that manages public properties, including heritage sites, campuses, office buildings and other buildings, employed BIM in all its projects by 2010.

 

In Asia, Singapore was in the forefront of driving the adoption of BIM. After implementing the world’s first BIM electronic submission (e-submission) system for building approvals, the Building and Construction Authority (BCA) mapped the BIM Roadmap with the aim to adopt BIM for 80% of construction projects by 2015. In Hong Kong, the Housing Authority (HA) not only developed a set of modelling standards and guidelines for BIM implementation but also stated its intent to apply BIM to all its new projects by 2014-15. South Korea’s Public Procurement Service, which reviews designs of construction projects and provides construction management services for public institutions, has made BIM mandatory for all projects worth more than S$50 million and for all public sector projects by 2016.

Residential Architectural Renderings: How they Benefit Distinct Stakeholders?

In the realm of homebuilding construction, though residential architectural renderings are predominantly used to pre-sell housing projects during the post-design phase, there are other key facets to it that are often overlooked. The residential project stakeholders use different forms of architectural visualisation to serve distinct needs. On the one hand, homebuilders may use low-detail birds-eye rendered views and other perspectives to study how the essential components of a project relate to its context. Alternatively, building companies may partner with AEC visualisation firms providing photorealistic architectural 3D rendering services to create high-detail fly-through animations of the project’s exteriors and interiors complete with surroundings, furniture, wall textures, natural/artificial lights and fixtures.

Right from concept planning and designing to the post-design and pre-construction phases, 3D rendered walkthroughs and stills in the residential construction domain provide value to the three distinct participants (potential residents, contractors, and homebuilders) involved.

Offers Clarity to Potential Users

Architectural 3D renderings clearly benefit end users as well as potential buyers in a number of ways. Firstly, they gain in-depth clarity about the project which is not always possible with 2D CAD floor plans and section drawings. Secondly, they can readily assess the pros and cons of alternative design options using detailed virtual walkthroughs even before any actual construction work kicks off on-site. Lastly and more importantly, residential architectural renderings (both interiors and exteriors) help the end users conveniently identify and estimate the cost implications of each of the design choices. As a result, detailed 3D scenes allow potential users to study how distinct components relate to their respective contexts whilst avoiding unpleasant and costly changes during construction.

Serves as Design Validation Tool for Contractors

Residential architectural renderings help contractors validate design before actual construction begins. The 3D photorealistic scenes, including both stills and videos, offers a real insight to the contracting team on the spatial coordination of distinct architectural elements. Whilst floor plans, section drawings, services drawings, and construction documents are essential, detailed 3D visualization ensure the homebuilder, the contractor and the end user are all on the level playing field as far as understanding the form, function, and scope of the residential project. In addition to this, 3D rendered assets can expedite the local regulatory approval process.

Helps Homebuilders Convey and Promote Detailed Concept 

The most important gap that architectural renderings can fill is that they allow homebuilders to convey accurate, precise, and detailed design intent to the end users. Serving as a key tool to promote, exhibit, and market their design concepts, 3D renders can add life to otherwise technical floor plans and monochrome perspective views by adding important facets that include textures, finishes, interiors, landscaping, and contextual and a humanistic environment. Accordingly, homebuilders can communicate and market their project details in a life-like photorealistic manner whilst the end users can navigate through finer nuances and request changes or clarifications before on-site construction commences.

For more information about our residential architectural 3D rendering services, kindly contact us.

BIM-Enabled IPD: A Win-Win for Owners and Project Stakeholders

The building and construction industry is faced with a multitude of challenges in areas, ranging from design planning, construction administration and budgeting, to scheduling and facilities management. To add to this, the demands from owners’ regards to timely completion, cost efficiency, constructability and energy performance are becoming increasingly stringent. As a result, multidisciplinary coordination between all the parties involved in an AEC project right from design planning through to on-site construction, administration is paramount to meet these demands.

Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) framework, if implemented appropriately, can ensure ongoing collaboration between diverse stakeholders, including the client, the architect, the main contractor, the MEP designer and the MEP contractor at all the stages of the project from conception to completion. As defined by the American Institute of Architects (AIA), Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) is a process that “collaboratively harnesses the talents and insights of all the participants to optimize project results, increase value to the owner, reduce waste and maximize efficiency through all phases of design, fabrication, and construction.”

 

A crucial element of the IPD approach is the adoption of building information modelling (BIM) technology. Unlike traditional project delivery methods, the essence of BIM technology is the central parametric model that is developed using 3D input, often times separate BIM models, from different parties involved in an AEC project. By enabling greater collaboration and information-sharing between different participants, data-rich BIM models drive the IPD framework and improve decision-making ability that can positively impact the project’s outcome. Following are the compelling reasons as to why AEC project teams must employ a combination of IPD and BIM and how this approach delivers positive value propositions for all stakeholders:

  • The IPD contractual agreements establishes clarity and dismisses ambiguity amongst all the project stakeholders with regards to decision-making, detailed responsibilities of each party, and risk/reward-sharing mechanism for each task. As a result, major participants, including the architects, MEP engineers and main contractors are clear about their respective roles and timeframes.

 

  • Employing parametric BIM models structures the project team in a way that encourages clear, open, and horizontal communication. This facilitates diverse disciplines to seamlessly coordinate during the pre-construction design planning and construction phases.

 

  • IPD necessitates mapping out comprehensive workflows and protocols for developing, sharing and updating the digital BIM models. These plans clearly delineate procedures for intra-discipline as well as inter-discipline design data management and communication.

 

  • Due to an integrated design management structure facilitated by BIM and IPD, the cost and time benefits experienced by the primary project team members spill over to secondary chain participants, including fabricators, installation experts and facility managers.

 

So, if your firm operates in the AEC industry and is looking for a highly recommended IPD support services provider to handle initial consultation to complete project management, contact us.