How Architectural Rendering Contributes to Design Development

What you see is what you get – how many times has that been said? In the field of architecture, this could be said about architectural rendering in the Design Development phase. The Design Development phase of architectural design can be of considerable importance in the ongoing communication process between designers and customers or owners. Visuals help keep this communication clear and transparent, and one of the key visual representations in this phase, rendering, is versatile, photorealistic and accurate when depicting the final structure. Here’s why high-quality architectural rendering services can move a project forward.

Useful both for new constructions and for renovations, rendering software’s prime objective is to provide a simulation of a building from a range of angles and distances, in the most accurate way possible. When the rendered image is accurate, it helps locate dimensional problems, it can help assess the usage of available space, and it enables the customer to be happy (or not) with both the inside and outside of their building . . . and these functions occur before construction commences.

During the Design Development phase, the architect and client work closely together to choose interior finishes, appliances and materials for windows, doors and fixtures. The initial drawings from the Schematic Design stage are modified, adding details from revised sketches. At the conclusion of this stage, the interior and exterior building design is finalised by the owner and the architect. The plans and elevations are reviewed and revised to include specifications and details needed for construction.

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Project elements detailed in the Design Development stage include:

  • Building materials and finishes used for the interior and the exterior
  • Furniture and equipment choices and locations
  • Cabinet and custom fabrications
  • Lighting and technological design
  • Mechanical, electrical and plumbing systems
  • Miscellaneous issues that affect project constructability and that may require changes to the project or to the budget

At the end of the Design Development stage, design drawings and specifications are almost complete. The building’s size, purpose, materials, configuration and spaces and the use of equipment and materials used for the structures and systems are defined. Then, the project’s budget, schedule and all building plans are decided.

So, how does rendering fit into this process?

Rendering can be done during the Schematic stage of design, but it is during the Design Development stage that many of the details of the design can be easily and comprehensively communicated to the customer through rendered images. These visual assets can be used to sell the project’s key features.

Photorealistic images are generated by rendering 3D models that include the basic mechanical and architectural details of the project design. Rendered images can be updated during the Design Development stage as changes occur. Though previously created in-house, an increasing number of engineers and designers are using external rendering specialists to create these images.

Models are endowed with a range of visual effects with rendering, such as shading, texture mapping, shadows, reflections and motion blurs. Improved rendering algorithms and hardware acceleration have made software more powerful than before.

The key five ways rendered images are beneficial during the Design Development stage are as follows:

  1. Design Flaw Identification

To picture a building in its entirety by only looking at 2D drawings has its limitations. A 3D model of a building helps see the structure from all angles. Due to this, a significant number of design flaws can be identified, which may otherwise have slipped through. These flaws can be amended before construction begins. By doing so, unnecessary expenses are minimised and construction time is shortened.

  1. Effective Communication

Architects typically aim to give customers a building that they want, as much as possible. Sometimes what the customer desires may not match with the architect’s understanding. With this 3D view of exteriors and interiors, the customer has a more informed understanding of building functions, materials and appearance. If the design seems to clash with what the customer wants, modifications can be made at this point.

  1. Promotes Saleability

The view of both exteriors and interiors in 3D can help the architect display his work to the customer and convince him of why the design works efficiently for his needs. Realty developers use them to convince potential stakeholders of the project’s worth and to invest in the project. Rendered images help market houses, condominiums and villas to potential clients.

  1. Walk-throughs

A walk-through is essentially a video developed from a series of rendered images so that the viewer can see external views of the building project and also has the ability to exist inside the building and actually walk through it. This lets the viewer experience a feel of the layout and experience different aspects of the building – to virtually imagine how to navigate the interiors of the building before the building has been constructed.

  1. Planning and Strategy

Views generated by 3D rendered images help plan for how the interior designs of the building can be handled. Designers and architects can prepare 3D interior strategy that they can use to communicate with the task force on site and show other stakeholders. This way, they can see potential defects and rectify them.

These are some of the key reasons for architectural rendering services becoming an essential tool for architects and interior designers worldwide during the Design Development phase. With several overseas firms offering 3D architectural rendering services at affordable prices and delivering 3D rendering and walk-throughs on schedule, they are becoming an increasingly preferred choice for Western firms in need of such services.

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Design HVAC for Modern Office Facility

Much like office practices and workflows, modern offices are changing. They are designed to be more open than in the past, which consisted of a ring of private cabins or offices surrounding clusters of cubicles in the centre of the office floor. The open plan design calls for alternative considerations for heating, ventilation and air conditioning, or HVAC duct design.

Cubicles are increasingly replaced with workspaces created for specific activities, such as team lounges, fitness centres and large work tables for discussions and collaboration on team projects. The HVAC system consumes a significant portion of all energy needs in a building, and changes in the office layout will impact the HVAC design. Thinking and planning for HVAC design in an office space needs to begin as early as possible when considering renovation or a new project to save energy costs.

Design HVAC for Modern Office Facility

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Design goals for office buildings are based on the fundamental principle of ensuring health and safety to those occupying those buildings. Ventilation, therefore, is required at all times and must eliminate or minimise pollutants. The measure of air flowing in or out of a space is cubic feet per minute or cfm. Generally, a person needs up to 30 cfm of outdoor air, and an ideal comfortable temperature is between 20 and 24ºC with 20-60% relative humidity. The efficiency of HVAC systems design makes these conditions possible.

Some of the key strategies for efficient HVAC systems design in modern offices include:

Reduction of Cooling Loads
Well insulated walls, floors and windows are a must. The use of natural light for a healthier workplace is becoming increasingly accepted as the norm and for the reduction of heating loads during the winter season. For warmer climates, tinted low-e glass can help avoid solar gain (solar heat gain or passive solar gain), which is the increase in thermal energy resulting from the absorption of solar radiation, and reduce cooling loads. Low emissivity glass, or low-e glass has a super-thin transparent coating that reflects infrared energy or heat. This glass minimises both ultraviolet and infrared light passing through it without affecting the visible light that is transmitted.
Lights that automatically switch off during sufficient daylight conditions are a useful energy-saving idea, which can work as a complement to cooler lighting options and will generate less heat, thus reducing cooling loads on the HVAC system.

HVAC System Size
It’s important not to install an HVAC system that is too big for the energy needs of the office concerned. Oversized air conditioning systems typically create discomfort during the day. Such systems generally switch on and off continuously and are not efficient in removing humidity, resulting in an office area that is predominantly humid and dotted with hot and cold spots. More than just square footage needs to be considered in calculating HVAC load requirements. Computer simulation can accurately analyse building materials, daylight, lighting design and space activities affecting HVAC loads.

Zones
Multiple zones with independent temperature controls within a large open space translates to greater efficiency and comfort. Different areas in open spaces have different temperature requirements, such as:

  • Perimeter areas, which need separate controls, as they are more susceptible to weather
  • Computer rooms, which have special temperature needs and controls
  • Conference rooms and other areas that host large gatherings of employees, which need more cooling while in use and less when empty

Modern offices with fewer internal walls make these design details tricky.

Sensors
Smart buildings use sensor technology, mainly with two types of sensors – light sensors and occupancy sensors. These can be incorporated with HVAC design early in the design stages. Light sensors sense the amount of daylight available and adjust lighting accordingly. They can be connected to the HVAC system to maintain heating and cooling. Occupancy sensors track the number of people in a given space at a given time. They communicate with HVAC controls to regulate temperatures. During a large meeting, for example, occupancy sensors help increase cooling for the area concerned.

A ‘Sensible’ Option
Environmental sensors lead to cleaner, healthier air. Sophisticated sensors provide real-time data on air quality, revealing the surprisingly unhealthy current conditions of most offices worldwide and a related reduction in productivity. Studies show that a 670-sq ft office with 15 employees can generate CO2 levels of 1,000 parts per million (ppm) in under 8 hours. This is equivalent to 2.5 times atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and at a level that may cause 15% decrease in cognitive performance in employees. Meeting and conference rooms, naturally, are even worse, with 3,000 ppm, significantly decreasing productivity.
Organic compounds from furniture and carpets combine with these high levels of carbon dioxide to increase fatigue in employees and decrease productivity. In some cities, windows cannot be opened due to the toxicity of the smog outside. Indoor air quality could be improved with HVAC systems that react to carbon dioxide and airborne particles. This could be achieved by pulling in fresh air and filtering out pollutants.

Under-floor Air Distribution
Typically, air conditioning cools a space using overhead air distribution. This method may not be ideal and less energy efficient in open spaces with high ceilings. Use of under-floor air distribution is a popular trend today. Diffusers are installed under a raised floor, transmitting cool, air-conditioned air throughout the space. Stratification moves warm air upwards to the ceiling and cooler air-conditioned air replaces it at ground level. This method has been found effective in providing continuously comfortable conditions and maintaining better air quality.

Ventilation
An effective HVAC design must control humidity, eliminate odours and remove dust, carbon dioxide, bacteria and viruses that may contaminate the space and spread illness. In an open-plan office, this is critically important. The correct indoor air quality must be regulated and maintained for the well-being of employees and their productivity. Sufficient intake and distribution of outside air and the controlled circulation of conditioned air is a mandatory requirement of efficient HVAC design.

Experts’ Design
Whether renovating or creating from scratch, professionals from the field, such a HVAC mechanical engineering consultants, must be taken on board right from the early stages to avoid costly errors at later stages. Consultants will utilise their professional HVAC design and drafting skills to produce high quality HVAC shop drawings, which can then be coordinated with other trades.

Open Windows
Decades ago, offices had windows that could be opened. Currently, most offices worldwide are air conditioned and air tight. Windows that can be opened help control energy consumption and give people greater control over their work environments. But skyscrapers with offices don’t have windows that open or have access to fresh air during a work day. Why? Well, some of the reasons for permanently closed windows are:

  1. To prevent cooled, air-conditioned air from escaping and unfiltered air, noise, rain and insects from entering
  2. That offices are wary that people may fall out or jump out, resulting in the offices and management being held responsible
  3. That some employees may open windows on a hot day, making the air conditioner work harder
  4. That in keeping with modern architecture, open windows are unfashionable and they disturb the lines of the building
  5. That with many employees on any floor, natural ventilation is near impossible
  6. That energy is saved, increasing productivity

Facts show that these concerns are no longer concerns. A naturally ventilated, intelligently designed office building can halve the energy consumption of constantly air-conditioned buildings. A naturally ventilated building need not support intense and constant HVAC system needs. Ventilation that is natural and access to fresh air contributes to an increase in productivity. A connection to the outdoors, a perception of control and better overall health are beneficial side effects of natural ventilation. The design of HVAC systems in an office facility thus has a direct bearing on the productivity of the office’s inhabitants.

With the help of qualified and experienced HVAC mechanical engineering consultants, a comfortable, safe and secure office building may be constructed with the right HVAC shop drawings. In the global environment of outsourcing MEP (mechanical, electrical, plumbing) design services, the quality, expertise and experience required can be found overseas, resulting in cost-effective, precise HVAC design and drafting.

The Challenges of Coordinating Risers

For modern buildings, risers carry the very life blood of a comfortable space. Much like an arterial system, different kinds of risers perform various necessary functions for the health of a building. They are conduits or carriers of fluids, fuel or air. Coordinating risers is critically important within the workflow of MEP coordination and clash detection, and this can be challenging at times. Challenges generally occur with hydraulic services design during renovation of older buildings. Let’s look at how that may happen.

Well, first off, what is a riser?

The Challenges of Coordinating Risers

Also known as a vertical riser, a riser is a void that contains a duct, pipe or conduit or a combination of all services that rises through a building to carry or transport gases, fluids or electrical signals in the form of piping. In general, a dry riser is an empty, or dry, pipe used to carry water for firefighting systems, and a riser cable can deliver electricity or communications between several floors. Looking at risers in more detail, they can be:

– Vertical Riser Ducts
As mechanical pipes and electric cables are aesthetically unappealing, typically they are hidden away in vertical riser ducts. These ducts must be strategically placed to minimise pipe lengths and cable runs, thus cutting costs. Pipes must run unhindered vertically in ducts, especially sanitary waste pipes, so that this waste water need not navigate bends in pipes. Since vertical risers cut through floors and can be vulnerable for the spread of fire, they must adhere to strict guidelines.

– Vertical Riser Cables and Pipes
Sometimes, it is practical to have risers exposed. Servicing becomes easier. Cables connect to sockets and light fittings to riser conduits mounted on walls and columns. Cables and pipes that travel through floors are covered with fire-protected collars, to prevent the spread of fire through them. Increasingly, services pipes are becoming part of the décor.

– Wet and Dry Risers
Vertical pipes, that are both wet and dry risers, run the full height of a building and are built near stairs to provide a direct water feed to each floor in case of fire. Dry risers have ground coupling pipes outside the building that can be connected to an external water source in case of emergency. Wet risers are connected to the building’s water supply.

– Dry Risers in Fire Fighting
A dry riser usually includes the following:
Inlet Box

  1. Made of galvanised sheet steel, for recessed mounting, with architrave
  2. Has a hinged, lockable door with a panel glazed with wired glass, so that the lock can be opened after breaking the glass.
  3. Hoses can be connected to inlets without opening the door.
  4. Large enough to access for maintenance and operate the drain valve

Inlet Breeching

  1. A two-inlet breeching, with instantaneous male coupling, back pressure valve, blank cap and chain
  2. Has a gunmetal gate valve for drain purposes, with plug and chain

Landing Valves

  1. Straight or oblique gunmetal gate pattern valves, with flanged inlet, instantaneous female outlet with blank cap and chain, fixed with a leather strap and padlock
  2. Lined and coated with woven synthetic fibre hose and diffuser branch pipe nozzle
  3. Valve, hose and nozzle in a box, on purpose-made hangers

Air Release Valves

  1. Brass automatic air release valve, with a rubber ball inside

For a tall building with the same floor layouts (e.g. apartments), the riser equipment/elements will change size as they move down or up the building. As such, a section of each riser will show slightly different sizes, especially for ductwork, which is why a drawing is created for every floor, even when the rest of the floor is the same.

With a variety of risers to deal with in the MEP (mechanical, electrical and plumbing) sector, it is crucial that the MEP systems coordination workflow, especially with regard to hydraulic design of liquid or water piping systems, is efficient. Technological advances and the innovations they enable have been a prime factor in fuelling this efficiency. In the construction industry, BIM (Building Information Modelling) has been driving immense change in the MEP coordination process and the delivery of MEP coordination drawings.

The use of BIM technology has made equipment tracking and task monitoring easier. Covering almost every aspect of a construction project, the BIM process involves project managers, subcontractors, designers, architects and other construction professionals participating in controlling individual processes and project phases, with a smooth exchange of information during the larger MEP coordination process.

Increasingly, the trend in the AEC (architecture, engineering, construction) sector is to design 3D models for 2D construction documentation and 3D trade coordination. Generally, the trade design or MEP design follows the architectural design stage. Trade professionals, such as HVAC mechanical engineering consultants and others, collaborate with architects to design mechanical, electrical, plumbing, fire prevention and fire protection services. A consultant or MEP contractor ensures that the MEP design is efficient, clash-free and installation-ready. At this point, fabricators who create ductwork or pipework components, electrical ladders or module sprinklers share their input. Thus, a fully coordinated 3D model is developed that can be used for clash detection.

Subcontractors (for the different trades) can virtually place systems as shown on detailed design drawings with individual elements, which include risers, offsets, hangers, conduits with required radius bends and cable trays. Other elements to consider include data communication lines, fire protection system controls and process piping.

At this point, challenges may arise, especially during the renovation of an existing structure. Some of the circumstances that may contribute to challenges in installation of risers include:

  • Riser replacement in an existing building – opening up walls creates a mess, dust and debris throughout the premises and destroys expensive decorative finishes that were lovingly installed. In older buildings, asbestos can be destroyed, as well as lead-based paint that has peeled off.
  • Existing plumbing risers may be difficult to handle after years of corrosion, because rust makes steel pipes brittle.
  • As hot and cold risers behind kitchens and bathrooms are replaced, tiles, cabinets and walls must be removed.
  • Risers must be replaced entirely or not at all, since new risers attached to old risers can break.
  • Accessing risers takes time and money.

Signs that risers need replacement are hard to miss. Upper floors will experience low water pressure. Debris will appear in the water – bits of corroded pipe in sinks, showers and bathtubs. Time is an indicator. Galvanised steel pipes last for about 50 years, accumulating scale and rust inside, while brass lasts for nearly 70 years. Copper pipes last even longer. Coloured water is a definite indication of rust and scale accumulation. Also, excessively hot showers are a result of clogged plumbing risers that reduce the flow. The need to replace existing risers during renovation introduces different kinds of challenges for coordination.

– For example, during the renovation of an existing building, one of the chase walls was opened, and a large conduit was installed inside a duct chase against an exhaust duct riser, causing a clash in the planned duct connection. A coordinated model showed ductwork and risers in the limited space and how their placement could be manoeuvred to avoid the clash, guiding the fitting of components to meet the design requirements.

– In another building, the floor-to-floor height was 20 feet, generally enough for ductwork and piping from air handlers to central core chases. In this case, a chilled water piping that was routed only 10 feet above the floor and close to the AHUs (air handling units) and supply and return ducts, next to the shafts, made for difficult coordination. Ductwork from 2 AHUs had to pass above the chilled water piping and between hanger rods. Coordinated design drawings showed a more efficient duct placement.

– Yet another example involved duct and pipe routing between an existing main electrical room and adjacent AHUs. The electrical room had floor-mounted AHUs right outside, and the adjacent AHUs had disconnect switches and variable frequency drives (VFDs). Coordinated MEP drawings and 3D modelling showed that the chilled water piping to the electrical room AHUs had to be moved, as did the larger AHUs and VFDs, allowing the ductwork and piping to be placed with the correct amount of clearance.

Easing MEP Coordination
Forming a key part in setting up and laying out design, MEP coordination is a key means to connect building elements and make the structure functional. Earlier during MEP coordination, drawings were overlaid and compared and spatial and functionals interferences, or clashes, were dealt with by multi-trade professionals. This method needed countless revisions before the finalisation of the coordinated drawings, but BIM processes changed all that. The BIM workflow involves a 3D approach and data-based reasoning to help MEP contractors plan, design and install equipment, including risers, efficiently.

Using BIM technology, a once-prolonged and tedious process fraught with delays, insufficient data and miscommunication, is now smooth and efficient. A building’s MEP systems are seamlessly integrated and coordinated with architectural and structural systems, creating clash-free models.

The placement of elements of MEP design, such as risers, can be intelligently designed and laid out. Tools, such as Navisworks, enable clash-free designs, with multi-disciplinary integration in one work environment. Flawless MEP coordination drawings are produced.

The Revit Solution
Creating a 3D model with Revit software enables easy coordination during design, and clash detection can be performed with Navisworks. So, early on in the design process, the model can be coordinated with architectural design and MEP design that includes risers. The models of new buildings and those of existing buildings will have differing degrees of efficiency, since existing buildings contain unknown elements, spaces and conditions which may not be represented in models.

The good news is that with BIM-enabled MEP coordination, most of the challenges concerning the design, layout and clashes of risers in MEP systems is eliminated and smooth coordination results. Those firms that find it difficult to provide hydraulics and plumbing design services and MEP coordination services may consider online collaboration and outsourcing, which is efficient, accurate and cost-effective, for the delivery of precise MEP coordinated drawings as part of the hydraulics and plumbing design services and MEP coordination services. Managers can retain full control of the project, resulting in faster delivery.

Advantages of Revit Family Creation in BIM Technology

Similar to biological families, Revit families follow a certain order. For instance, a door is a ‘category’ of different components. There are different kinds of doors, and these different kinds of doors are different ‘families’. An example of a ‘family’ name would be a ‘flush door’. Within the family of the flush door, there are options for the flush door, based on dimension, material, etc. A flush door of a particular dimension is a ‘type’ of flush door. All the elements in a project’s design are created using families, including walls, roofs, doors, columns, beams, trusses, windows, fixtures, annotation, mechanical components, plumbing fixtures, lighting fixtures and other detailed components, and they can be created using Revit for BIM (Building Information Modelling) requirements in architectural design drafting.

Advantages of Revit Family Creation in BIM Technology

Revit family modelling within the BIM context provides a range of advantages, namely:

  • Improved layout plans
  • Increased communication of plans
  • Impressive Revit 3D modelling for marketing
  • Detailed scheduling
  • Customisation of projects

The creation of BIM models requires the extensive use of families. Walls, doors, windows, stairs, etc. may be of multiple types in the same project. A prime advantage of Revit families is that any change to a type will be updated in every instance of that type throughout the project design. For example, when the height of a window type is changed in one place, all windows of the same type will be modified instantly and automatically throughout the entire design.

The intelligent model-based process of BIM technology helps plan, design, construct and manage buildings and infrastructure and results in delivering specific outcomes with time and cost savings. Revit families and BIM content can be created for architectural, structural, mechanical, electrical and plumbing design. The process to deliver Revit families with high standards includes:

  1. Selection of the family template
  2. Planning the parameters
  3. Creation of the model geometry
  4. Assigning of the object subcategories according to requirements
  5. Setting up visibility rules
  6. Creation of family type

Revit allows created families of components to be stored and reused in other projects. They can be used as reference material by architectural designers to show prospective clients.

Builders, manufacturers, designers, engineers and other stakeholders in a project are dependent on model creation services for intelligent and parametric models that can host a complete group of components or equipment for BIM construction. Besides displaying the parameters of actual equipment and geometric components of windows, boilers, columns, etc. through graphics, Revit family modelling has other advantages, such as:

  • Formula and imported data result in effective component design
  • Regardless of size and design, the models created are accurate
  • Resizing of models is both possible and economical
  • Relationships and coordination between various elements of a unit are maintained
  • Enabling building analysis and estimating

Revit modelling can create additional items like curtain wall panels, furniture, plumbing fixtures, electrical fixtures, machine parts, elevators and HVAC pumps. Family creation services include the following types:

  • Structural
  • Architectural
  • MEP
  • Building systems
  • BIM
  • Related custom and supporting content

Revit family creation, like real-life families, provides many benefits due to the inter-relationships they provide in a model. They are the driving force behind the success of BIM projects. With skilled Revit BIM practitioners available globally, accurate, cost-effective and viable project design services can be ensured.

Scan to BIM Technology for Sports Stadia

Scan to BIM Role in Sports Stadia Design

Sports spectators typically consist of loud crowds, with high adrenaline, indulging in copious consumption of food and drink and enjoying great views to thrilling sports matches. The venues for these spectacles require careful planning and intelligent design and usually improvement or scaling up to cater for greater numbers with more comfort. As the BIM (Building Information Modelling) process becomes more popular in the AEC (architecture, engineering, construction) industry, the Scan to BIM course of action plays an important role in the update and re-design of sports stadia across the world.

Scan to BIM Technology for Sports Stadia

So, what is Scan to BIM?
Scan to BIM is a process which uses the latest technology to convert point cloud data to detailed 3D BIM models. It begins with the scanning of a physical space or site by a 3D laser scanner. The resulting scan(s) are used to develop a precise digital representation of the space, which can then be utilised to plan, design, assess or evaluate the space. Scan to BIM is also widely known as point cloud to BIM.

A point cloud is a large group (sometimes millions) of data points in space, or a 3D coordinate system, typically created by 3D scanners. The scanners measure many points on objects’ surfaces or building surfaces, creating a cloud of points or a point cloud. Point clouds record surfaces in great detail, reducing the need for repeated site visits. Point clouds can help create 3D CAD models of manufactured parts in Revit and can be used for quality checks, visualisation, animation and rendering. Using point clouds, BIM models can be created, hence the term ‘point cloud to BIM’ or Scan to BIM.

Scan to BIM can be used by MEP designers, MEP contractors, consulting engineers and architects. The data in a Scan to BIM model can be exported or imported by surveying equipment in a format that it understands. The data can then be used to create as-built conditions or used for field verifications.

When Scan to BIM is used in sports stadia, minute details are extracted from point clouds. The interior and exterior of a football stadium can be scanned, allowing section cuts of seating areas and conference centres. The precise details gathered have a significant impact on the resulting efficiency and accuracy of the subsequently generated BIM model, contributing to an efficient stadium design. A brief look at the Scan to BIM process shows how.

Scan to BIM Process
The Scan to BIM procedure typically follows five steps:
1. Survey
2. Scan
3. Process
4. Model
5. Additional Information

Survey:
The stadium site sets up 3D survey control markers, which are coordinated before the scanning takes place. These markers allow accurate tracking of the site data.

Scan:
During this step, 3D laser scanners connect to 3D survey control markers. Point cloud data is developed with detailed stadium site data from scanners, aerial imagery, drones, etc. and fed into the BIM environment for stadium designers.

Process:
Collected point cloud data is downloaded and processed at different intervals, then checked against the survey control data at the stadium site for inconsistencies.

Model:
Stadium site data is relayed to modelers, who create a 3D model to represent the data of the stadium site. This model is shared between all project stakeholders to minimise or eliminate rework, as it contains large amounts of data and can be updated easily.

Additional Information:
All additional necessary information is added to the BIM model.

Scan to BIM Benefits
The practice of Scan to BIM has several benefits, such as:
• Speed – 3D laser scanning enables fast collection of data at stadia sites
• Accuracy – amassing millions of measurable data points enables pinpoint accuracy of stadia site information
• Consistency – laser scanners ensure fast, accurate data, every time, at any stadium location
• Shareable Data – collected data can be measured, shared between the stadium project stakeholders
• Easy Retrofitting – complex MEP installations in retrofitting projects of old stadia are made easy due to data captured over the full measured range
• Transparency, Communication, Collaboration – stadium project stakeholders can access, use, modify, communicate and collaborate easily
• Reliability, Quality Assurance – the BIM model facilitates clash detection and elimination
• Visualisation – designers can visualise more details in BIM, such as sunlight on different parts of a stadium, during different seasons and different hours
• Sustainability – stadia with sustainable design can be designed through this method, calculating stadium energy requirements and performance
• Saving Costs – early detection and rectification of errors helps save rework and overall costs

Software Benefits
Generally, Revit is a preferred software platform to create BIM models. As well as the advantages of the Scan to BIM process mentioned above, software benefits include:

1. Creating 2D drawings from 3D point cloud data
2. Inbuilt tools to create elements such as walls, columns, pipes, etc.
3. Easy renovation of older stadia
4. Created BIM models have high accuracy levels from point cloud data feeds
5. Efficient clash detection and clash eradication

Stadia Design Stages
Design stages for stadia generally follow the stages of architectural design. They include:

Pre-Concept
Surveys of the stadium site are taken, and ground conditions are studied and analysed.

Concept
Design changes and details, such as materials, the room types, ceiling heights, stairs and elevators, are determined.

Schematic Design
The stadium structure is reviewed, with initial calculations, and systems are integrated. Design criteria, such as mechanical systems design and crowd modelling, are tested.

Design Development
Detailed calculations are completed, equipment is selected, including lights, cooling units, fans, sanitaryware, kitchen equipment. Interior designers, kitchen operators, fire engineers, ICT specialists and broadcast specialists provide input and ensure local codes and standards are met.

Issue for Construction
Specification of materials, equipment and finishes are determined. Detailed drawings are completed.

Once stadia are re-designed through Scan to BIM, it is worth knowing how the process is applied. The main applications of Scan to BIM services in the construction of sports stadia are:
• Creation of as-built BIM models for retrofit, refurbishment and renovation of existing sports stadia
• Creation of as-built BIM models for stadia MEP services that alert stakeholders to clash detection early on, to avoid costly rework
• Improved BIM models due to accurate point cloud data
• Fast determination of true dimensions

So, how successful has this process been in the real world?

Sports Stadia Designed with Scan to BIM
The following stadium projects used Scan to BIM technology to improve speed, quality, efficiency and reduce the cost of construction:

Dodger Stadium, Los Angeles – laser scanning was used to determine current seating and aisle ways for new seating requirements, to show existing structural elements and MEP services for the 56,000-seat baseball stadium

Camp Nou Stadium, Barcelona – 3D camera scans were used to help renovate a 60-year-old stadium, with an upgrade of Wi-Fi technology, improvements in VIP hospitality services and a projected increase of 6,000 seats. An underground parking area to improve access for fans and a roof are to be installed at the stadium.

College Football Stadium, South Bend, Indiana – 3D laser scans located underground utilities over 160,000 square feet at a college football stadium, showing active conduit, water and sanitary sewer lines inside the stadium concourse. CAD engineers used the point cloud data to bolster the 2D utility site plans. Additional structural and architectural features gathered in the scan data can be used for other projects in the same space.

As more stadia globally are changing their design for growth or comfort or new uses, moving in the direction of a Scan to BIM construction process is becoming popular. With the wealth of affordable, experienced technical talent available overseas, outsourcing Scan to BIM services presents several advantages, namely:

• Well-qualified technicians easily convert point cloud data into data-rich BIM models from surveyed data images and point clouds.
• Licensed architects and certified scan technicians deliver high-quality as-built surveys.
• Delivery of accurate Scan to BIM services help design teams make quick decisions.
• Delivery of precise build-cost estimates reduce errors and results in significant cost savings.

Before the evolution of BIM processes and BIM modelling, the design and construction of sports stadia required much cumbersome documentation, was lengthy and involved high costs. Using the Scan to BIM process, every aspect of a stadium can be represented in a single digital view, allowing project teams to communicate and collaborate with significantly greater effect and efficiency, resulting in the construction of beautiful and technically sound sports stadia that stay within budget, especially with the attractive option of outsourcing these services.

Advantages of MEP Consultants from India

Having a single source for MEP (M&E) design and coordination – that mainly sums up the main advantage of MEP consultants from India for Western construction. MEP design and MEP coordination effectively being delivered in the shortest time is best served by a single source. Finding that single source will either be with the designer, who also executes coordination, or with a contractor, who also executes design. A single source, therefore, must have additional skills to perform both functions and thus complete the workflow in its entirety. MEP consultants in India can help in this regard by providing the complete design and contracting service required, such as MEP design engineering, BIM modelling, 3D BIM coordination and MEP shop drawing services, for example.

Advantages of MEP Consultants from India

MEP Design

MEP design outputs generally include providing mechanical, electrical, public health and fire protection building services design information (also known as building engineering and architectural engineering) by building services designers and consultants. This design data and information is provided in a comprehensive manner for all design stages, from concept design, design development, tender and construction. The design is typically delivered in BIM format and include spatially coordinated models that contractor and installation teams can install from or use to progress their detailed design and coordination.

MEP Coordination

The above individual designs are incorporated and spatially organised to be install ready in the process known as MEP coordination. Once an intelligent model is sent to the MEP engineers, they can begin working, using the building envelope, rooms and volumes as reference points. With Revit MEP, MEP engineers can determine spaces and zones and can use intelligent data which provides greater detail. The parametric tools will update automatically, and calculations can be more quickly and easily analysed when building designs change. The results are reported and shared across the entire project team. MEP engineers can calculate sizing and pressure loss. Simulation and visualisation tools can predict system behaviour, appearance and connectivity.

MEP coordination thus includes providing spatially coordinated building services drawings for construction and engineering projects, which can be utilised by MEP building services contractors. All building services (HVAC, pipework, public health and electrical systems) are also coordinated with other disciplines contributing to the building fabric and structure (steel, concrete, false ceilings, etc.). This multiservice coordination work is created in a 3D environment for all the disciplines, resulting in several benefits, namely:

  • No clashes (validated using clash-detection software tools)
  • Models are generated, through BIM modelling, with precise representations of all mechanical components/kits
  • Prevention of site-based delays and disputes, as all services have been proven to work
  • Ease of communication, since the 3D model can be viewed and enables easy walk-throughs for demos, reviews or value engineering
  • Faster approval/sign-off (3D BIM modelling allows clients to view detailed areas in 3D).

Verification of 3D MEP coordinated drawings is possible with the help of the latest MEP modelling software Revit MEP, and clash detection in Navisworks has been found to be effective for 3D building services coordination.

Benefits of Single Source for MEP Design and Coordination

When MEP design and MEP collaboration were provided by different sources, several challenges ensued. The adoption of a specific workflow – one where MEP design and MEP coordination are delivered by one designer or one contractor – solved virtually all of these issues, combining design and coordination, aiding installation, commission and fabrication. The end products include models and drawings which are coordinated and ready to install.

Particular advantages with this workflow process are:

  • The BIM model is started and finished by the same team or firm, saving time and minimising confusion.
  • The layout strategy (plant and main distribution) is usually adopted first, keeping changes to a minimum.
  • The designer can consider procurement information, incorporating this data early in the design stage.
  • The designer/contractor can then issue a coordinated model.

Additional support for design and coordination is a constant requirement for both designers and contractors. Essentially, India is a vast source of technically qualified MEP professionals, and growing collaboration online with overseas customers over the past decades has groomed a generation of well-qualified, well-experienced, low-cost MEP design human resources now capable of seamless MEP coordination too. The major advantages India’s MEP outsourcing services provide are as follows:

  • Thorough understanding of process and requirements
  • Indian MEP professionals are well versed in delivering designs according to international building and construction standards, global best practices and quality control systems.
  • Expertise in MEP
  • India produces high quantities of technically qualified engineers and designers.
  • Most MEP consultancy firms in India house technical personnel of different disciplines under one roof.
  • Technical personnel work with the latest CAD technology for drawings and calculations and use BIM 360 Team with Collaboration for Revit (C4R) to create coordinated BIM models.
  • Experience in MEP
  • MEP design and coordination professionals have spent several years learning MEP technologies and systems, and they have spent even longer moulding custom-designed MEP solutions, specifically for each client.
  • Track records for successful solutions and projects by a particular MEP consulting expert can be viewed online.
  • These firms have a history of delivering 3D BIM and 2D CAD solutions to general contractors, design build contractors, real estate developers, architecture and engineering (AEC) firms with high quality, on time and cost-effectively.
  • Indian MEP consultancy firms conduct peer reviews, have a customised quality checklist or have automated software-based model checking.
  • Infrastructure
  • Overseas MEP consultancy firms house relevant hardware, software, printers, plotters, etc., thus saving this expenditure for Western firms.

The benefits for outsourcing 3D MEP coordinated drawings ultimately result in saving time and cost for Western construction firms. Skilled external partners, especially MEP consultants from India, as a single source can efficiently deliver MEP design and MEP coordination drawings, additional design, BIM activities and responsibilities, including MEP shop drawing services.

Benefits of Outsourcing VDC Services

Modern high-quality buildings require highly effective planning and execution. Virtual Design and Construction, or VDC, is an application or process which involves a plethora of digital tools of emerging technologies to help plan and effectively execute virtual building design. The VDC process may or may not include BIM modeling, but using BIM virtual construction technology and BIM models enables architects, engineers, clients and contractors to work collaboratively on a single model — at the same time within the gambit of VDC. Outsourcing VDC and BIM services produces cost-effective, accurate output on time using the right people and the right technology.

Blog -Benefits of Outsourcing VDC Services

Why outsource VDC services?

Overseas BIM services professionals are adept at working with teams of project planners during the phases of concept design, analysis of proposal requests and during construction. Ultimately, outsourcing VDC services using BIM processes increases efficiency and profitability. Here’s how:

  • Specific knowledge or expertise required by certain projects may not be available with the in-house team. Overseas BIM services firms can bring a varied and experienced talent pool into the project quickly and at minimal cost.
  • Experienced and technically qualified outsourced partners may be able to train in-house staff on relevant emerging technologies.
  • During tight delivery schedules, overseas firms can assign skilled BIM services experts to key project needs. More professionals are available and some can be dedicated to one client at a time, while others tackle emergency troubleshooting for other projects.
  • Outsourcing frees up in-house personnel to focus on other projects.

Other Benefits of VDC Outsourcing through BIM Services

Typically, BIM services firms provide field drawings and visualisations before construction begins. Expertise with Revit tools within a BIM workflow helps streamline design documentation, leading to greater productivity. Design changes in one system will automatically be updated throughout the model, cutting costs and reducing delays.

  • Overseas BIM services firms create 3D models and 4D views of clash-free coordinated models of architectural, structural and MEP disciplines. By using 5D BIM models, cost managers can decide the quantity of different components that are required.
  • BIM outsourcing firms help Western AEC firms retain more in-house professionals on site and provide information on keeping projects on budget.
  • BIM services firms provide 2D drafts, documents for review and building permits with minimal turnaround time. Use of Revit software allows changes to be made quickly, saving costs.
  • Advanced BIM technology helps avoid scheduling conflicts and delays with reliable coordination services. Proper coordination of MEP systems and the time for MEP components to be installed can lead to smooth workflows between service providers and other stakeholders, saving time, rework and money.
  • Visualising the installation of MEP systems in tight spaces and complex routes and identifying potential problem areas can be made easier with BIM software in a VDC environment, therefore keeping costs down.
  • BIM services firms maintain project records, helping with operations and maintenance throughout the project lifecycle. Access, upgrades and repair of MEP systems takes minimal effort.
  • Time management is a noticeable plus point to using overseas BIM service firms. While outsourcing BIM services, project managers can concentrate on logistics, costs and material flow, helping to make quick, sound decisions, saving extra costs and time.
  • BIM services help collaboration and coordination with detailed BIM models.

With a host of significant advantages to support the practice, outsourcing VDC and BIM services to overseas VDC companies is soon becoming a preferred option for AEC firms in the West, helping to save time and cost.